Iron deficiency in chronic kidney disease
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Keywords

Anemia
Iron deficiency anemia
Renal Insufficiency
Iron deficiency
Oral iron
Intravenous iron

How to Cite

1.
Ariza-Garcia A, Cabeza Morales M, Arnedo Arteaga F, Salgado Montiel LG, Romero Rivera H, Bello Espinosa A, Maza Villadiego A. Iron deficiency in chronic kidney disease. Rev. Colomb. Nefrol. [Internet]. 2023 Oct. 25 [cited 2024 Jul. 18];10(1). Available from: https://revistanefrologia.org/index.php/rcn/article/view/646

Abstract

Background: Iron deficiency is a disorder frequently observed in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), especially in advanced stages. Its presence is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Iron deficiency can be absolute or functional. Absolute deficiency refers to absent or reduced iron stores, while functional deficiency is defined by the presence of adequate iron stores but insufficient iron availability for incorporation into erythroid precursors. Several risk factors contribute to absolute and functional iron deficiency in CKD, including blood fi, impaired iron absorption, and chronic inflammation.

Purpose: With this narrative review, it is intended to present the details, pathophysiological aspects, diagnostic criteria and therapeutic options in patients diagnosed with chronic kidney disease with iron deficiency.

Methodology: A non-systematic review of the fi ronra was carried out, in the PubMed database, also including the most used international guidelines that address the issue fi ron deficiency in chronic kidney disease.

Results: A total of 30 bibliographical references were included. Iron deficiency can be absolute or relative. The absolute iron deficiency occurs with ferritin values < 100 mcg/l and transferrin saturation (TSAT) <20%, while functional deficiency is related to ferritin levels > 100 mcg/l but with a TSAT <20 % Treatment of absolute deficiency consists of oral or intravenous iron replacement. In a patient who is not yet receiving dialysis, a therapeutic trial with oral iron can be done, if there is no response, intravenous iron will be chosen. In patients receiving dialysis, the ideal measure is intravenous iron, preferably in preparations that allow high-dose schemes and low frequencies of administration. The goals proposed by the different guidelines present variations between 500 and 700 mcg/l d ferritin.

Conclusions: iron deficiency should be actively sought in patients with CKD, since its presence and lack of intervention leads to an increase in adverse outcomes. Iron therapy is the mainstay of treatment; the choice of the agent to be used depends on the individual characteristics of the patient and the availability of oral or intravenous iron preparations.

https://doi.org/10.22265/acnef.10.1.646
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