Introduction: Several commonly used chemotherapeutic agents can cause complete or partial Fanconi syndrome (FS). FS is a proximal tubulopathy that produces electrolyte and acid base disorders where there is loss of glucose, amino acids, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, uric acid and metabolic acidosis occurs due to loss of bicarbonate. FS is not usually reported, and the diagnosis is often misled.
Purpose: To highlight the importance of urinary and serum monitoring in patients undergoing chemotherapy, as well as describe the recent literature about the association between chemotherapeutic agents and partial or complete Fanconi syndrome.
Case presentation: A series of cases of pediatric oncology patients with preserved renal function is presented in which different manifestations of proximal tubular nephrotoxicity occurred secondary to chemotherapeutic agents such as antimetabolites, alkylating agents, and anthracyclines.
Discussion and conclusion: The spectrum of FS can range from a generalized or complete proximal tubulopathy to partial alterations in electrolyte reabsorption. The importance of serum and urinary monitoring should be recognized in patients with tumor lesions who will undergo chemotherapies with potentially nephrotoxic agents; the dosage, frequency and combination of chemotherapeutic agents should be taken into account, in order to prevent and treat the complications of renal toxicity including complete or partial SF.
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