Eficacia y seguridad de la cloroquina, la hidroxicloroquina y la azitromicina en pacientes con COVID-19. Resumen de evidencia

Palabras clave: COVID-19, hidroxicloroquina, azitromicina, evento adverso, profilaxis

Resumen

Introducción: hasta el momento, no se ha demostrado la efectividad de ningún tratamiento para afrontar la emergencia sanitaria por COVID-19.

Objetivo: presentar la evidencia disponible respecto a la eficacia y seguridad del uso de cloroquina, hidroxicloroquina y azitromicina en la profilaxis y el manejo de pacientes con COVID-19.

Materiales y métodos: se realizó una revisión de la literatura en las bases de datos MEDLINE, Scopus y PubMed sobre publica- ciones que registraran el uso de cloroquina, hidroxicloroquina y azitromicina en pacientes con COVID-19.

Resultados: se seleccionaron 12 publicaciones que incluyeron revisiones rápidas de literatura, estudios observacionales y ensayos clínicos. No se encontró información sobre la profilaxis con cloroquina, hidroxicloroquina ni azitromicina para SARS-CoV-2. Los eventos adversos reportados incluyeron emesis, dolor abdominal, náuseas, diarrea, erupción cutánea y picazón.

Conclusiones: según la evidencia recopilada el uso de hidroxicloroquina o de cloroquina sola o en combinación con azitromicina en pacientes con COVID-19 no ha mostrado beneficio. Además, cada uno de estos esquemas de tratamiento se asocia con un mayor riesgo de muerte y de episodios de arritmias. En síntesis, la efectividad de estos medicamentos sigue sin estar esclarecida, por lo cual se sugiere evitar su uso en el tratamiento de personas con infección por SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19.

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Publicado
2020-06-11
Cómo citar
1.
Chacón Acevedo K, Pinzón C, Barrera A, Low Padilla E, Yomayusa González N. Eficacia y seguridad de la cloroquina, la hidroxicloroquina y la azitromicina en pacientes con COVID-19. Resumen de evidencia. Rev. Colomb. Nefrol. [Internet]. 11 de junio de 2020 [citado 27 de septiembre de 2020];7(Supl.2). Disponible en: https://revistanefrologia.org/index.php/rcn/article/view/469