Coraliform Stones: Trends in the chemical composition of stones in patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy
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staghorn calculi
percutaneous nephrolithotomy

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Martínez Pinedo C, Mejía G, Huertas Cañas JM, Contreras Álvaro, López H, Patiño G. Coraliform Stones: Trends in the chemical composition of stones in patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Rev. Colomb. Nefrol. [Internet]. 2024 Apr. 30 [cited 2024 Jul. 15];11(1). Available from:


Background: Urinary tract lithiasis is one of the most common urological diseases worldwide. Staghorn calculi represent 10 to 20% of all cases of nephrolithiasis and constitute the most severe presentation of urinary tract lithiasis. It is a challenging condition that, due to its physiopathology, compromises renal integrity and function by causing obstructive and infectious phenomena.

Purpose: Determine the physical and chemical composition of staghorn stones from patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy in a cohort between 2017-2022.

Methodology: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted, involving all patients who underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy between 2017 and 2022 at a single center.

Results: 61 patients were analyzed, with the majority being female (75.4%), with a mean age of 42.8 years and a mean BMI of 28.3. Men constituted 24.6% of the sample, with a mean age of 49.8 years and a BMI of 25.3. Among the most prevalent pathologies, arterial hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, obesity, and thyroid disease were found. The mixed calcium variety was the most frequent. Primarily, the stones had a chemical composition of calcium oxalate with magnesium phosphate in 84.2% of cases.

Conclusions: Current data indicates that staghorn calculus composition is predominantly composed of calcium oxalate. Therefore, implementing interventions to prevent their formation and reduce recurrences should be a fundamental aspect of managing patients with lithiasis.
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