Pandemia de COVID-19 y enfermedad renal: ¿Qué sabemos actualmente?

Palabras clave: lesión renal aguda, 2019-nCoV, enfermedades renales, enzima convertidora de angiotensina, nuevo coronavirus 2019, diálisis renal, fallo renal crónico.

Resumen

Introducción: La enfermedad renal aguda es una patología relativamente frecuente en pacientes con infección por COVID-19, en especial en el grupo de pacientes que se encuentran críticamente enfermos; los pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica se consideran un grupo de riesgo durante la pandemia debido a la inmunosupresión asociada por lo cual es importante la detección de infección por SARS CoV-2 en estos pacientes además de quienes están en diálisis y pacientes con trasplante renal. Es de suma importancia la identificación de enfermedad renal al ingreso de pacientes con COVID-19 pues se ha demostrado que representa un indicador para valorar supervivencia y pronóstico; varios estudios han establecido que la falla renal aguda se relaciona directamente con peor pronóstico y mortalidad. Debido al impacto positivo en la supervivencia que significa el manejo oportuno de la falla renal en pacientes positivos para COVID-19.

Objetivo: Presentar la información científica actual sobre la fisiopatología de falla renal en contexto de COVID-19, diagnóstico, tratamiento, estrategias de seguimiento de la función renal durante la hospitalización, manejo de unidades de diálisis, indicación de líquidos intravenosos y manejo de shock en pacientes con enfermedad renal.

Métodos: Se realizó una revisión de la literatura utilizando las bases de datos PubMed, Google Scholar y Embase; los criterios de selección incluían artículos que registraran el abordaje general y específico de complicaciones en el contexto de enfermedad renal, no se usaron filtros en la búsqueda.

Conclusión: La falla renal en el contexto de la infección por COVID-19 representa un aspecto importante a estudiar dentro del desarrollo de la enfermedad y requiere consideraciones especiales para su manejo.

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Publicado
2020-05-08
Cómo citar
1.
Caicedo Mesa A, Méndez Fandiño YR, Larrotta Salamanca LX, Díaz Lache LL, Forero Alvarado MJ, Cortés Motta HF, Acosta Costilla Álvaro F. Pandemia de COVID-19 y enfermedad renal: ¿Qué sabemos actualmente?. Rev. Colomb. Nefrol. [Internet]. 8 de mayo de 2020 [citado 26 de noviembre de 2020];7(Supl.2). Disponible en: https://revistanefrologia.org/index.php/rcn/article/view/438