Effect of pharmacological therapies for glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus on vascular outcomes
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Liraglutide, empagliflozin; vascular diseases; diabetes mellitus, type 2; hypoglycemic agents.

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Lopera Vargas JM, Rico Fontalvo JE, Melgarejo R. E, Castillo Barrios GA, Ramírez Rincón A, Gomez AM, Martínez Rojas S, Ibatá Bernal L. Effect of pharmacological therapies for glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus on vascular outcomes. Rev. Colomb. Nefrol. [Internet]. 2020 Mar. 2 [cited 2024 Apr. 20];7(1). Available from: https://revistanefrologia.org/index.php/rcn/article/view/372


Introduction: In the last 5 years the publication of knowledge related to vascular disease and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DT2) has been increasing. However, due to the absence of a review that collects all the vascular outcomes of T2D, the current review of the literature aims to group all vascular outcomes related to T2D and describe how hypoglycemic drug therapy can be effective for the control of these outcomes. Cardiovascular events as the main outcome show that innovative antidiabetic drugs such as empagliflozin and liraglutide can add significant benefits for patients with T2D.

Materials and methods: Systematic search of the literature, from which 141 references were obtained, after eliminating duplicates, for paired screening. Subsequently, 21 references were identified that met the inclusion criteria to be considered in the analysis.

Results: The effect of good glycemic control on clinical outcomes, specifically in the progression of diabetic kidney disease, has been the objective of multiple large-scale studies, both in type 1 diabetic patients and type 2 diabetics and macrovascular outcome of the primary DMT2, increasing the incidence of comorbidities and in turn representing greater morbidity.

Conclusions: Among the main causes of morbidity and mortality of patients with T2D, are those with vascular damage, especially cardiovascular disease and renal involvement. In this context, the pharmacological treatment of diabetes mellitus has focused on finding drugs that reduce the importance of cardiovascular events and that at the same time delay the onset of nephropathy or its progression. Thiazolidinediones, DPP4 inhibitors (alogliptin, saxagliptin and sitagliptin), insulin glargine and degludec have demonstrated cardiovascular safety, but not incremental cardiovascular benefits, in patients with T2D who are at high risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

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